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          The Radio Section illustrates the history of radio and radiotechnics throughout the world and in Romania, with the help of graphics, models and original items.
After James Clerk Maxwell discovered the mathematic laws of electromagnetic waves (1865), Heinrich Hertz experimentally demonstrated their existence (1888) and Eduard Branly built the electromagnetic wave-detector entitled "coheror" (1890), inventors started considering the use of electromagnetic waves as a means of communication.
         Alexandr Popov, a Russian electro-technician, designed a device detecting electric discharges in the environment, and he increased its sensitivity using a lightning rod, which was in fact the first reception antenna. On 7 May 1895, at the University of Petersburg, Popov gave a speech on the tele-transmission of electromagnetic waves, practically demonstrated in 1896 by a radio-telegraphic transmission to a 240 meter-distance.
         In June 1895, near Bologna, Guglielmo Marconi, Italian physicist, experimented a radio-telegraphic transmission to a 2400 meter-distance. In February 1896, Marconi left for England where he licensed his invention entitled “the wireless telegraph”. In England, Marconi had all financial possibilities for carrying on his research, continuously improving it. In 1898, he made the first transmission over the English Channel, and in 1901 he subjected distances achieving the first trans-Atlantic transmission. The invention of the diode by Sir John A. Fleming in 1905 and especially of the triode by Lee de Forest in 1906 enabled the serial production of radio-telegraphic devices.
         Long after the invention of the radio, assuring the secrecy of messages transmitted by the broadcasting station to a certain destination remained impossible and was considered as a serious deficiency. It was only after World War I that this deficiency was turned into an advantage, the radio being used as a means of mass communication.
         In 1910, Dunwody and Pickard built the first radio station with a galena detector (crystal of lead sulphide). The audition was done with haut-parler-shaped loudspeakers or telephony headphones. In 1917, Lucian Levy and Edwin H. Armstrong discovered, separately, each by his own research, the principle of the heterodyne. Therefore, super-heterodyne radio sets were produced. They were qualitatively superior, much more stable and did not require many adjustments.
         At the beginning of the third decade of the 20th century, the first radio broadcasting stations of permanent programs were inaugurated: in 1922 in USA, England and France, in 1923 in Germany, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, the Czech Republic, in 1924, in Australia, Spain, Italy, Sweden, South Africa and in 1925 in Poland, Hungary, Japan.
         During this period, the electro-technical industry developed starting the serial production of the radio receivers. The improvements of electronic tubes by prestigious companies such as Philips, Telefunken, Valvo, Tungsram, Mazda, enabled the creation of more varied and cheaper reception devices, while quality was not lowered. The same period was marked by the production of devices with direct amplification with reaction or super-heterodyne with loudspeakers placed inside the box.          The cases were made of wooden material, bakelite, or more rarely of tin, with a particular attention to their design. Certain styles were thus created, the producing company being recognized by the shape of the device. Most renowned firms creating and commercializing radio-receivers were : Philips (the Netherlands), Atwater-Kent, RCA, Standard (USA), Columbia, Marconi (England), Ducretet (France), Telefunken, Siemens, Mende (Germany), Radione, Eumig, Hornyfon (Austria), Baltic (Sweden). All these companies were also represented in Romania after 1925.


         In Romania, the first radio-telegraphic station was installed in Herastrau by engineer Nicolae Vasilescu Karpen. It had a 150kw-power and the wave legnth of 11000 m. In 1920 it was replaced with a broadcasting station with electric arc.
         In 1925, the “Friends of Radiophony” Association was created under the coordination of prof. Dragomir Hurmuzescu who proposed from the very beginning to popularize radiophony by public auditions, conferences and initiation courses pertaining to the creation of radio devices. Prof. Dragomir Hurmuzescu coordinated experimental broadcastings at the Electrotechnics Institute of the University of Bucharest and the Polytechnic School.
         An important role in the popularization of radiophony in Romania was played by the two specialized magazines "Radiofonia" published between 1925-1927 and re-edited in 1928 and "Radio-Român", issued between 1925-1928, its publication being ceased for financial reasons. On 3 May 1928, the Romanian Broadcasting Society was founded and the same year, in July, the radio station of Bucharest started its first broadcastings, with a daily schedule transmitted using a Marconi station of 120w antenna, temporarily installed in the building situated at 60, General Berthelot Bd. These broadcastings lasted until the inauguration in October 1929 of the 12kw antenna Marconi station of Baneasa. The tests of the Baneasa station were accompanied by experimental broadcastings on short waves using the old station of the Electrotechnics Institute of Bucharest, installed by eng. D. Petrascu with the 31-36m wave length, and a station of the Polytechnic School mounted there by prof. Tudor Tanasecu, with the 49m wave length.
         In 1935, a radio broadcasting station was arranged at Bod, with the 1875 m wave and 150 kw power, meant to cover the whole territory of Romania. As for the frequency modulation emission, invention experimented by the American Edwin Armstrong already in 1933, it was introduced in Romania only in 1956. The experimental station was made by a group of technicians from the Polytechnic Institute of Bucharest. Programme I was broadcasted daily. In 1957, the specialists of the radio station of Bucharest arranged a second one, so to assure the daily broadcasting of Programme II.
         Before the radiophony law was voted in 1925, the trade with radio-receivers was sporadic and mainly referred to items and devices entering the country through the intermediary of private persons and only rarely merchants. In autumn 1925, once the “Radionel” company and the “Radio-Electrica” Enterprise were founded, and dealt exclusively with radiophony products, the commercialization of radio-receivers really started in Romania too. The year 1927 marked the inauguration of the SAR Philips society which commercialized products of the “Philips” company of Holland.
         After the inauguration of the Baneasa station and the control of the problem of the high customs fee applied to radio sets and spare parts, resulting in prices beyond the buying power of the middle class, the radiophonic business rapidly developed in Romania, similarly to the situation acknowledged in the Western countries.
         In Romania, there were no companies destined to the production of radio sets before the inauguration in 1949 of the “Radio Popular” factory, which later became "Electronica". In 1974, the "Tehnoton" factory of din Iasi started producing a wide range of portable and fix radio-recerivers, especially for the Romanian market.

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